- Pulitzer Prize (1951)
Roscoe Carlyle Buley was born in Georgetown, Indiana, on July 8, 1893. He graduated from Vincennes (Indiana) High School in 1910. He received both his B.A. and M.A. from Indiana University in 1914 and 1916, respectively.
During World War I, Buley served for a year in the U.S. Army Signal Corps. He then returned home and married Esther Giles (1898 - 1921) in 1919. After Esther's death in 1921, Buley married Evelyn Barnett (January 14, 1904 - February 28, 1989). He taught high school history at Delphi and Muncie, Indiana, and Springfield, Illinois, before receiving his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1925.
From 1925 to 1964, Buley was a professor of history at Indiana University, serving as emeritus professor from 1964 until his death in April, 1968, at the age of 74. Buley authored numerous articles, reviews, and books, winning the Pulitzer Prize for History in 1951 for his two volume work, The Old Northwest: Pioneer Period 1815-1840. He also won the Elizur Wright Award for The American Life Convention: Study in the History of Life Insurance. In 2007 he was honored by his former high school as a Vincennes Lincoln High School Distinguished Alumnus. Noted for always having an open door to students who wished to chat, in 1962 Indiana University's Sigma Delta Chi journalism society presented him the Brown Derby Award for being the most popular professor on campus.